So, right here sounds like it is your assertion that this civilization invented slavery. I don’t know how true any of this is, but based on your own statements it sounds as if the Mali Kingdoms invented a lot. Effective albeit brutal systems of commerce, wasn’t their claim to fame all the extensive gold that they mined up out of the ground? And if the gold was mined it also had to be worked, although according to you, only Europeans know how to work with metals. You are sort of contradicting yourself. Again all past civilizations engaged in some kind of brutal human exploitation — all of them, as far as we know. This spin on European history that you are attempting, as the kinder, gentler civilization is beyond ridiculous. It wasn’t even until the Magna Carta, that Europeans entertained the idea that poor people were actually people, with any rights — and that idea just came to pass a little over 1000 years ago over in Europe. European history is just as vicious and brutal as any other kind of history — and no more or less innovative, all things considered. Innovators and innovations come from diversity — from curious people interacting with other countries observing their culture and taking what they want from it. My father used to say, “the Chinese had gun powder for thousands of years, but it took Marco Polo to put a metal ball behind it and make a gun.” I don’t know if that is true — but the idea that European history is the only valuable history, that produced anything of value, is ridiculously, patently false. Endless evidence of this — it is a ridiculous position to even debate. It is such an idiotic and stupid assertion, that I can go on endlessly researching information to disprove it, and never be wrong. Its kind of like saying, “all Europeans are good and everyone else is bad.” It is a really stupid thing to say! And yet you insist on yammering on and on about it.